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Dementia is not exactly a disease. It describes a group of symptoms associated with a decline in memory or other thinking skills severe enough to reduce a person's ability to perform everyday activities. Alzheimer's disease accounts for 60 to 80 percent of cases. Vascular dementia which occurs after a stroke is the second most common dementia type. But there are many other conditions that can cause symptoms of dementia including some that are reversible such as thyroid problems and vitamin deficiencies. Dementia is often incorrectly referred to as senility or senile dementia, which reflects the incorrect belief that serious mental decline, is a normal part of aging. This session discusses a lot about Alzheimer's and dementia and the treatment interventions.
If a person has a major stroke, or one or more silent strokes which can happen without him realizing it is called vascular dementia. The symptoms depend on which part of his brain was affected by the stroke. Vascular dementia more often begins with poor judgment or trouble planning, organizing, and making decisions. Other symptoms which include are memory problems that disrupt your loved one's daily life; trouble speaking or understanding speech; problems recognizing sights and sounds that used to be familiar; being confused or agitated; changes in personality and mood, and problems walking and having frequent falls. This session discusses more about vascular dementia, the root cause, symptoms and the treatment interventions.
Apathy, depression and anxiety are common conditions experienced by people with dementia. They are known as psychological conditions because they can affect a person’s emotional and mental health. Anxiety is more than just feeling stressed or worried. Anxious feelings are a normal reaction to a situation where a person feels under pressure and usually pass once the stressful situation has passed, or the ‘stressor’ is removed. Depression affects how a person feels about themselves. A person may lose interest in work, hobbies and doing things he or she normally enjoys. Some people may lack energy, have difficulty sleeping or sleep more than usual, while some people feel anxious or irritable and find it hard to concentrate.
Geriatrics and Cognitive Disorder has a spectrum of presentations which manifest from normality as part of senility to the established form of various neurodegenerative illnesses causing dementia. Understanding these various differential diagnoses is of great clinical significance as they have different management and interventional strategies. The neuropsychological deficits which are identified should follow known neuropathological disease patterns that help in distinguishing different types of cognitive impairment to established dementia. It is important to look at different cognitive impairment in elderly with core diagnostic sense to define severity, type of cognitive impairments, identifying patients need for accommodation or adaptation, associated risks, effectiveness of therapies and predict mortality. This session discusses more about geriatrics and cognitive disorder.
The brain is body’s control center. It’s part of the nervous system, which also includes the spinal cord and a large network of nerves and neurons. Together, the nervous system controls everything from your five senses to the muscles throughout your body. When your brain is damaged, it can affect many different things, including your memory, your sensation, and even your personality. Brain disorders include any conditions or disabilities that affect your brain. This includes those conditions that are caused by illness, genetics, or traumatic injury.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic and progressive movement disorder, meaning that symptoms continue and worsen over time. Nearly one million people in the US are living with Parkinson's disease. The cause is unknown, and although there is presently no cure, there are treatment options such as medication and surgery to manage its symptoms.
Diagnosis, Symptoms and Assessment of dementia and Alzheimer's vary greatly. At least two of the following core mental functions must be significantly impaired to be considered dementia such as short-term memory, communication and language, ability to focus and pay attention, reasoning and judgment, visual perception. Doctors diagnose Alzheimer's and other types of dementia based on a careful medical history, a physical examination, laboratory tests, and the characteristic changes in thinking, day-to-day function and behavior associated with each type. Doctors can determine that a person has dementia with a high level of certainty. But it's harder to determine the exact type of dementia because the symptoms and brain changes of different dementias can overlap. This session discusses more about diagnosis, symptoms and assessment of dementia and Alzheimer's.
CST, or 'Cognitive Stimulation Therapy', is a brief treatment for people with mild to moderate dementia. 'Dementia' is an umbrella term, the two main types being Alzheimer's and Vascular dementia. CST was designed following extensive evaluation of research evidence, hence is an evidence-based treatment (1). UK Government NICE guidance (10) on the management of dementia recommend the use of group Cognitive Stimulation for people with mild to moderate dementia, irrespective of drug treatments received.
Care Practice and Awareness is an important factor in treating dementia and Alzheimer's. Dementia patients need assistance and full time care as much as drugs. Some common care practices in dementia are assistance in food and fluid consumption, pain management, social engagement ensuring safety and security of dementia patients. Main aim of care practices is to ensure cut in hospitalization and psychotropic drugs. Understanding patient's mood changes, particular behavior, speech problems and help in rectifying them. Dementia patients need end of life care so qualified nursing staff is needed. Care practices in dementia have been critical to engage in international dementia meetings. In need to evolve in dementia care world gathering and genuine talks on dementia care is required. This session discusses more about care practice and awareness in treating dementia and Akzheimer's.
Without clinical trials there can be no better treatments no prevention and no cure for Alzheimer's disease. Scientists work constantly to find enhanced ways to treat diseases but improved treatments can never become a reality without testing in clinical trials with human volunteers. By participating in clinical research, patients can help to accelerate progress and provide valuable insight into potential treatments and methods of prevention. Participating in clinical trials has the potential to help both the individual participant and other individuals who have Alzheimer's disease or are at risk of developing it. Patients can gain access to potential treatments before they are widely available. They can receive expert medical care at leading healthcare facilities often free of while participating in important medical research. They can help future generations by contributing to Alzheimer's research.
Risk factors associated with dementia include the following Atherosclerosis, which is the thickening and hardening of artery walls due to plaque buildup. Cholesterol, a high level of LDL cholesterol increases the risk of developing vascular dementia. Homocysteine is an amino acid that naturally circulates in your blood and is a building block of protein. A high level of homocysteine is a risk factor for a number of diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, vascular dementia, cognitive impairment, stroke and diabetes. Psychological and experiential factors may be a risk factor for dementia as well. For example, if you tend to socially isolate yourself or don’t regularly engage in cognitively stimulating activities, you may be at an increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease.
Neuropharmacology is the study of how drugs affect cellular function in the nervous system, and the neural mechanisms through which they influence behavior. There are two main branches of neuropharmacology. They are behavioral and molecular. Behavioral neuropharmacology focuses on the study of how drugs affect human behavior or neuropsychopharmacology including the study of how drug dependence and addiction affect the human brain. Molecular neuropharmacology involves the study of neurons and their neurochemical interactions with the overall goal of developing drugs that have beneficial effects on neurological function. Both of these fields are closely connected since both are concerned with the interactions of neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, neurohormones, neuromodulators, enzymes, second messengers, co-transporters, ion channels, and receptor proteins in the central and peripheral nervous systems. This session discusses more about neuropharmacology.
Amyloid deposits build up in the brain leading to further deterioration. These deposits of amyloid are referred to as plaques and cause the brain cells to shrivel up and form tangles, which in turn lead to changes in the brain structure and cause the brain cells to die. The formation of plaques and tangles also prevents the production of some important brain chemicals called neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine, which is important in memory function. Other causes include genetic factors such as the presence of, or changes to, certain genes; environmental factors, such as long-term exposure to some environmental solvents like pesticides, glues and paints or infection with certain viruses or bacteria. Lifestyle factors such as a lack of exercise, poor-quality sleep and a diet lacking fruit and vegetables.
Neurodegenerative disease is an umbrella term for a range of conditions which primarily affect the neurons in the human brain. Neurons are the building blocks of the nervous system which includes the brain and spinal cord. Neurons don't reproduce or replace themselves so when they become damaged or die they cannot be replaced by the body. Neurodegenerative diseases are incurable and debilitating conditions that result in progressive degeneration and or death of nerve cells. This causes problems with movement called ataxias, or mental functioning called dementias. Examples of neurodegenerative diseases include Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, and Huntington’s disease, Prion disease, Motor neurone diseases or MND, Spinocerebellar ataxia or SCA, and Spinal muscular atrophy or SMA.
Alzheimer's disease leads to progressive deterioration in the brain, which causes problems with memory and cognition. These changes to the brain can cause a range of behavioral issues. Caregivers of Alzheimer's patients may find their loved ones acting in unfamiliar, even disturbing or violent ways. Sometimes the behavior is so severe that families place Alzheimer's patients in nursing homes or dementia care facilities. There are plenty of coping strategies available to help families develop an understanding of what their loved one is going through as well as help them manage the behavioral effects of dementia. The most common behavioral changes in Alzheimer's patients include angry outbursts and physical aggression; hand-wringing, pacing and rocking; accusing loved ones of wrongdoing and hallucinating; repeating stories and leaving the house unassisted; sleep problems and sundowning. This session discusses more about Behavioral Problems in Alzheimer's disease.
Recent data show that the number of people affected by neurodegenerative dementia is growing at an epidemic pace in various regions of the world. This cross-cultural study examined the relationships among age, gender, ethnicity, religion, and education as well as the attitudes and perceptions related to ageing and dementia. Moreover, the level of education attained was significantly correlated with understanding dementia; regardless of education level, In this study, it was determined that attitudes and perceptions about ageing and dementia are influenced by multiple factors such as education, age, and religion, and that it is imperative that younger generations develop coping strategies including healthy lifestyles and social and/or religious communities to provide quality care to the elderly in general and to dementia patients in particular.
Current trends in dementia epidemic assume that the age-and-sex-specific prevalence of dementia will not vary over time and that population ageing alone increasing the number of older people at risk drives the projected increases. There was some moderately consistent evidence to suggest that the incidence of dementia may be declining in high-income countries. Evidence on trends in the prevalence of dementia was inconsistent across studies and did not suggest any clear overall effect. Declining incidence may be balanced by longer survival with dementia, although mortality trends have been little studied. There is some evidence to suggest increasing prevalence in East Asia, consistent with worsening cardiovascular risk factor profiles, although secular changes in diagnostic criteria may also have contributed. This session discusses more about current trends in dementia.
Nurses provide the specialist dementia support that families need. When things get challenging or difficult, our nurses work alongside people with dementia, and their families: giving them one-to-one support, expert guidance and practical solutions.
Lewy body dementia, otherwise called dementia with Lewy bodies, is the second most basic sort of dynamic dementia after Alzheimer's infection dementia. Protein stores, called Lewy bodies, create nerve cells in the mind districts associated with considering, memory and development (engine control). Lewy body dementia causes a dynamic decrease in mental capacities. Individuals with Lewy body dementia may encounter visual mind flights and changes in sharpness and consideration. Different impacts incorporate Parkinson's malady like indications, for example, inflexible muscles, moderate development, and tremors.
• Alpha-synuclein protein stores
• Visual fantasies
• Reduced capacity to smell
• Identifiable prodromal stage in Lewy body dementia
Neuropsychology is the examination and portrayal of the conduct changes that pursue a neurological injury or condition. It is both a test and clinical field of brain science that intends to see how conduct and cognizance are affected by mind working and is worried about the determination and treatment of social and subjective impacts of neurological issue. While traditional nervous system science centres on the pathology of the sensory system and established brain science is generally separated from it, neuropsychology looks to find how the cerebrum corresponds with the psyche through the investigation of neurological patients. It accordingly shares ideas and worries with neuropsychiatry and with conduct nervous system science as a rule. The term neuropsychology has been connected to injury thinks about in people and creatures. It has additionally been connected in endeavours to record electrical movement from individual cells in higher primates .
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